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Abstract

Reading was one of the areas targeted by most states for assessment because it not only is a critical area in academics, but also an area where most students were not showing gains. The National Education Association (NEA, 2004) prescribed reading as the catalyst for both learning and achievement. Reading difficulties typically being in the primary grades and become more profound by the time a child reaches high school (Fisher & Frey, 2007). However, questions regarding how exactly to formulate, deliver, sustain, and manage secondary-level interventions remain to be addressed, as do issues of validation, school resources, and cost (Kamps & Greenwood, 2005). New state and federal mandates are holding all students and educators to higher academic standards. Schools are becoming more inclusive and more collaborative despite existing organizational barriers that often interfere with effective practice.

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